Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Who Decided Free Essays

Nehal HousnyBasic Composition Kathy WilfordNovember 5, 2012 Who Decides? Medical Technologies (MT) is an essential factor when it comes to science . However, there seems to be a misunderstanding on who should have the power to control its use. The three most common figures that are usually involved in controlling MT’s are the government, doctors, and society. We will write a custom essay sample on Who Decided or any similar topic only for you Order Now Each representative has its own advantages and disadvantages . In both essays ,†The Made to Order Savior† by Lisa Belkin and â€Å"Who Holds the Clicker† by Lauren Slater , medical technology procedures are executed yet controlled and regulated differently. Every figure has its own guidelines as to how to control this technology and at times there was no control at all . Medical practices are very important and sometimes necessary to save a patients life . With proper funding from the government , doctors should have the authority to control how medical technology is used. In the â€Å"Made to Order Savior† by Lisa Belkin , doctors were able to control medical practices used in the patients life. Unfortunately , they received little or no funds from the government. Belkin felt that doctors lacked control because they were being held back from the government . For example, Dr Mark Hughees was one the first doctors who helped Strongin Goldbergs’ and the Nashes’ family find a cure for their children Henry and Molly. His brilliance and ever-lasting experience caused much of his research to be supported by the government , but not for too long. It was only so soon that Congress decided to stop funding Hughess research , which eventually affected the lives of Henry and Molly. Hughes then continued his research through private funds. Belkin states â€Å" at the time he was also a member of a federal advisory committee that developed guidelines for single-cell embryo analysis that was central to PGD. But no sooner had those guidelines been developed than Congress banned all federal financing of embryo research , and Hughes was forced to continue his research with private funds only†(6). This shows that the doctors’ work is not always supported and can be affected by the governments’ decisions. The government is controlling and limiting the doctors’ ability to use medical technology . By stopping financial funds necessary to continue research the chances of finding new cures lessens by a great chance . This can also be considered detrimental to the patients life because it leaves questions unanswered . On the other hand , in â€Å"Who Holds the Clicker† by Lauren Slater , doctors were able to receive adequate funding from the government to expand the use of medical technology . The government here saw the benefits of medical technology to the point were they took control of it. By willingly sponsoring doctors , this technology was soon uses as a management device. e . This potentially put pressure on the doctors because there funding was still limited which made no room for mistakes or seconds chances. Slater states †Beyond questions of whether a several mentally ill patient can provide informed consent, there continue to hover fears that DBS could fall into the hands of the state, or the overworked prison system, and be used as a management device†(242). As mentioned in the context of the essay, it is understood that the phrase â€Å"management device† refers to power and the capacity to dominate. Here, the government saw an opportunity to utilize the tools of medical technology to control the population. One example of how the government wanted to use medical technology to gain power is to try and wipe out violence. Slater states â€Å" The potential uses and abuses of neural implants were obvious: You could control prison populations; you could effectively wipe out violence† (236). They targeted certain races and populations, such as African Americans. Their excuse to use medical technology was to wipe out violence from the African American race. Once again, this proves that the doctors are the ones who should be in charge of medical practices. With a doctor, there is no exchange of benefits with his or her patients. The doctor does not desire power or management to cure a patient. Instead, a doctor needs experience, passion, and the will to decide when and how to use medical technology. In both Belkin and Slaters’ essays the government is seen as an obstacle to allow the doctors be in control of their own job. Government is looking for ways on how to control the people regardless if it is providing funds or not. Peoples lives should not be based on what the governments’ visions are . The use of medical technology should stand in the hands of the doctors with no pressure included. Neurosurgeon Rees Cosgrove stated â€Å"If we do not do this right and carefully, and , you know properly†¦ I do not think we will have another opportunity†(242). There is a certain amount of pressure on the doctors shoulders’ to perfect these experiments and devices. Because there is no time for trial and error doctors are not able to test the procedure several times before actually executing it . â€Å"There are no animal models of DBS for anxiety or depression, so these forays into the human brains are largely unguided despite all the high tech equipment†(242). Once again, government is limiting the doctors’ options creating less precise results for their research. Spending so much time with anyone creates a certain level of attachment, let alone between a doctor and his or her patient. This attachment or bond can expedite the curing period of a patient. For example, Belkin states â€Å" They [Henry’s parents] took on Dr. Hughes problems as their own, bonding with him deeply , knowing that they needed him to bond if they were to save Henry†(10). Here, it is obvious that Henry’s parents are proudly desperate to find a cure for their son to the point where they are willing to deal with Henry’s doctors’ personal problems. Concerning over one another’s issues and trying to lift a burden always increases productivity and positivity. Slater also states â€Å" When Mario talks about that time now , tears come to his eyes. â€Å"It was like a miracle,†he says. †I still have some OCD symptoms but way , way less. Dr Greenberg and Ramussen saved my life. †(241) It is clear that as long there is good communication between the patient and the doctor, progress comes easier . Also, when the doctor has full control of the situation in terms of knowing the patients past habits, pain issues, and diagnosis he or she can provide a specific solution. They not only master helping every patients life but also learn to bond with most of them . This makes it more personal which can result in a positive way. Doctors should be able to receive proper funding since it is for sake of saving lives and advancing cures. As mentioned, doctors are reputable people with knowledge of how medical procedures should be carries . There are regulations that are given to every patient before the procedure. For example, Belkin states â€Å"That was apparently what Hughes’s gut told him , too, and he agreed to try and develop a lab procedure to screen HLA a the single-cell level. His participation came with certain conditions. First , that the mother must be younger than 35, because younger women produce more eggs, increasing the odds of a healthy match. Second, that he would work only with families who carried a specific subset for Type C mutation, known as IVS4,because it is the most common. And, last of all, the child being created must be wanted. †(7). Doctors create these guidelines to create the maximum amount of productive work and results. Once again, proving that they should have the say as to how medical technology is used. Slater’s essay advocates this idea of setting guidelines before experimentation, â€Å" To be eligible for neural implants he [Mario] had to exhaust every available pharmacological option at either optimal or above optimal doses and undergo at least 20 hours of behavior therapy. He had to understand the risks and implications of the procedure and provide his consent. His case was viewed by three review board†(238). It is shown that doctors are trained to take full control of a patients’ medical life in order to provide them with necessary aid. Others may see these procedures as detrimental to human health, however no doctor is licensed to harm his own patients. Slater’s essay later states â€Å" Dr Greenberg, his [Mario] psychiatrist said â€Å"we don’t want to repeat the mistakes of the past. We want to sure this therapy is not only used indiscriminately , but that it is reserved for the group of people who have failed trials of everything else†(238). This shows that doctors have the commitment to cure their patients. Although doctors provide accurate results , other may argue that doctors have too much control over the patients life. In† Who holds the Clicker†, a doctor by the name of Robert Heath studied forms of psychosurgery such as deep brain stimulation , also knows as DBS. The method in which carried this type of surgery is graphic and can be disturbing to the patients’ family members. Slater states â€Å" Heath took patients culled from the back wards of Louisiana’s mental hospitals, slit open their skulls , and dropped electrodes down deep inside them . With the use of a handheld stimulator , Heath discovered that electrodes placed in the hippocampus, the thalamus, or the tegmentum could produce states of rage or fear , while electrodes placed in the brain’s septal area and part of the amygdala could produce feelings of pleasure†(235). Evidently, the language used in this quote is visual and does not sound pleasurable. These procedures are seen as immoral and unethical by many patients and the public. To a certain extent the procedures of some experiments are unconscionable . Nonetheless, this paved a way for new science discoveries and benefited millions. Belkins’ story takes this issue a little lighter than Slaters’. The mothers of Henry and Molly underwent the process of in-vitro fertilization every other month to try and conceive a newborn child. It was necessary to impregnate a child with a matching tissue type. In spite of this hectic procedure , the mothers did not mind it . Even though the process affected their health and reproductivity , they still followed the doctors recommendation . They flew out to different clinics in different states to find a solution. Belkin states â€Å" Lisa spent all 1999 trying to defy the odds. In January she produced 12 eggs, 2 of which were healthy matches;she became pregnant , then miscarried. In June she produced only four eggs , one of which was a match but did not result in a pregnancy. In September she produced eight eggs , six of which had Fanconi anemia ; the single health match was implanted , but again, her pregnancy test was negative†(13). If there is a will there is a way to solve any problem no matter how difficult it is. Lisa , mother of Molly, kept trying and trying until she finally did become pregnant. This shows that trial and error, despite its vulgar imagery , still has the possibility of bringing positive results and changing someones’ life! Also , as much as doctors know the procedure is harmful in some way to the body, they also know there is a way of rejuvenating the patients health. These doctors don’t see a possibility of â€Å"no†. So why would anyone not allow doctors to have control of our medical lives? Dr. Wagner states â€Å" I’m here as the patients advocate , meaning Molly and Henry and all the other children in need of transplants . It is my obligation to push the envelope because I see how bad the other side can be . I see the results of a sibling transplant;they’re the easiest transplant to do†(7). It is clear that doctors see potential way more than the patients and the families. They should be trusted even if the procedure involves surpassing boundaries and limits . When these limits are exceeded and pushed to its fullest potential results like saving Molly’s life occur . Belkin states â€Å" In the end , Molly’s life was saved. That is the Nashes’ answer to people who question their right to manipulate nature . Their right springs form the difference between 30 percent and 85 percent ;the difference between Molly and Henry. That is also their answer to those who would urge the government to ban all embryo research because it harms unborn children . The research , they say ,saves children like Molly†(17). Not only is it proven that the government is an obstacle in terms of funding research , but also the doctor here jeopardizes his own job . Ultimately , medical technology is a very brittle topic to discuss in terms of who controls it. Governments’ part to play is to fund the doctors who are guaranteed to establish new science . As far as the essays and my personal opinion goes , doctors are the ones to be given control . They should be able to regulate medical devices . With their recognizable knowledge and perpetual background, it is safe to rely on doctors with your eyes closed. 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